Pheidias, often considered one of the greatest sculptors of ancient Greece, lived during the 5th century BCE. He was a pivotal figure during the Classical period of Greek art, and his works set the standards for classical beauty, form, and proportion.
Here's a brief overview of his life and contributions:
Statue of Zeus at Olympia: This statue, made of ivory and gold, was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It depicted the god Zeus seated on a grand throne. Although the original no longer survives, descriptions and depictions of it on coins have given scholars an idea of its grandeur.
Athena Parthenos: Located inside the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis, this massive chryselephantine (gold and ivory) statue depicted the goddess Athena. Like the Zeus statue, the original is lost, but its design and impact are well-documented.
Role in the Periclean Acropolis: Under the statesman Pericles, Pheidias was put in charge of the entire sculptural program for the reconstruction of the Acropolis, which was ravaged during the Persian Wars. He played a pivotal role in overseeing the production and placement of sculptures on various buildings, most notably the Parthenon.
Style: Pheidias' works epitomize the Classical style of Greek sculpture, which emphasized harmony, balance, and idealized human forms. He had an unparalleled ability to depict the gods with a sense of majesty and grace, making them seem both powerful and serene.
Legacy: While none of Pheidias' original statues survive in their entirety today, Roman copies, ancient descriptions, and other pieces inspired by his style give us a sense of his immense talent and influence. His principles of proportion and representation influenced not only other ancient sculptors but also the trajectory of Western art in general, especially during the Renaissance.
Controversies: In spite of his significant contributions, Pheidias' life wasn't without controversy. He faced accusations of embezzling gold meant for the statue of Athena Parthenos. Additionally, he was accused of impiety for allegedly including portraits of himself and Pericles on the shield of the Athena statue. The exact nature and outcomes of these charges remain subjects of historical debate.
Pheidias' lasting impact is felt not just in the realm of sculpture but also in the broader context of art history. He played a foundational role in defining the Classical ideal and setting standards that would be admired and emulated for millennia.